Military Service Evasion 11

11.   Other resources and further reading

The UNHCR’s “Guidelines on Military Service“, examines what the conscience means for those seeking protection from service in State and non-State armed forces.

The NGO War Resisters International actively campaigns to promote the right to conscientious objection (the “right to refuse to kill”) and researches the prevalence of conscription and the right to conscientious objection worldwide.  Its World survey of conscription and conscientious objection to military service was last comprehensively updated in 2005 – although some revisions have been made since that date.

The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers promotes the prohibition on the conscription of children worldwide.  It collects data on child conscription on an annual basis and publishes it in an annual report entitled “Global Report on Child Soldiers”.

The UNHCR Guidelines on International Protection No. 10: Claims to Refugee Status related to Military Service within the context of Article 1A (2) of the 1951 Convention and/or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees replaces the UNHCR’s Position on Certain Types of Draft Evasion (1991). The Guidelines complement the UNHCR Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and should be read alongside the UNHCR’s Guidelines on International Protection No. 6: Religion-Based Refugee Claims and Guidelines on International Protection No. 8: Child Asylum Claims. 



  1. Ciric and Ciric v. Canada, 2FC 65 (1994). (Federal Court of Canada holding that refusal to serve in Serbian army in 1991 constituted protected political opinion).
  2. In Non-Litigious Procedure – Initiated by the Applicant Represented by Attorney Dr. Lilla Farkas Against the Office for Immigration and Nationality of MOI Represented by XY, No. 1, Hungary: Municipal Court of Budapest, 28 February 2000, available at:,HUN_MCB,47fdface8.html