Country of Origin Information Experts


Who are COI experts?

COI experts have achieved years of academic and practical experience about a particular country that qualifies them to provide expertise information and objective evidence on an individual claim for refugee status. We do not have COI specialists for all countries. Should you be willing to be a COI specialist, please write to or contact us here.

Most of the COI experts listed below have agreed to work pro bono (voluntarily) for those non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which do not charge refugees for legal services and no funds for this purpose; other COI experts have said they work for a very reduced fee. Others do charge and we have tried to indicate this when this information was provided.

All of the recommended COI specialists we have listed have filed their curriculum vitae with us and have agreed to work on cases with legal advisers on a confidential basis. However, the Rights in Exile Programme cannot assume responsibility for the quality of their work. 

Please see the training document on ” Researching Country of Origin Information: A Training Manual ” that could be useful to those having little experience in writing declarations on behalf of asylum seekers. It includes all the relevant refugee laws for those who may need background on the 1951 Convention and other legal matters pertinent to refugees. There are also links to declarations or expert opinions published by various organisations that you can easily access. You can find the document and download it as a PDF file here.

Lawyers representing refugee claims should 

  1. Write about the case to the persons listed on the country pages to ensure their expertise is relevant to your case;

  2. Give them time and sufficient information about a case for them to agree with you on their working arrangements.

 You find our database of COI experts here.



The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Contact form on:

The IRB has a wealth of material on their website on all manner of things dealing with their work, including Research and Country of Origin Information. They have a number of offices across Canada.


Asylos: Country of Origin Research for Lawyers and NGOs supporting asylum seekers in Europe

Asylos is a pan-European network of volunteers who research information to enable asylum seekers to claim their right to international protection. Each volunteer donates at least two hours per week to look for the facts that can prove asylum seekers face persecution in their home country or which can support the credibility of their testimony.

Founded in 2010, Asylos prepares on-demand and free of charge research reports for lawyers and NGOs in Europe, with a focus on requests from Belgium, France, Greece and the UK. The reports are based on public sources and on testimonies of experts in the field. They may be used in any stage of the asylum procedure.

To request information for an asylum claim or to consult existing reports, please visit their website here.

Asylos is registered as a charity with the Charity Commission of England and Wales (registration no 1158386). The network is coordinated by a secretariat based in Brussels and a consultant in London

ACCORD (Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation) / Austrian Red Cross
Email: training.accord(at)

ACCORD provides independently, neutrally and objectively researched information on countries of origin of asylum seekers. The use of a comprehensive selection of sources ensures balanced and corroborated information. ACCORD continuously documents human rights developments focusing on the criteria of the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention and other legal instruments providing international protection. Their database is thus a focal point for asylum relevant and up-to-date material. ACCORD offers responses to case related queries and a COI training manual .


This platform provides attractive and up-to-date interfaces and search capabilities. It is accessible to the public with the aim to increase COI transparency for all asylum practitioners, including civil society. The EASO COI Portal delivers COI authored by national asylum administrations from EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland, EASO and EU institutions (EU External Action Service, European Parliament, etc.).

This portal allows users to search for COI from different sources, in different languages and to be regularly informed of COI publications or events. Additional features such as country or topic specific alerts, country overview pages, and dedicated collaboration spaces for the EASO COI Specialists Networks are available on the portal. For non-English documents, more English abstracts are provided, allowing the users to identify relevant information. Visit the EASO COI Portal here

European Country of Origin Information Network

The European Country of Origin Information Network collects information on the situation in countries of origin of asylum seekers with a focus on the needs of asylum lawyers, refugee counsels and persons deciding on claims for asylum and other forms of international protection. It provides Country of Origin Information for all the main countries from which refugees originate. Whilst it does not offer the specialised expertise required in individual cases, it gives solid background information and is a useful starting point. Since February 2008, the search engine on automatically includes English and German synonyms and near synonyms of search terms.

Le site du Réseau européen d’information sur les pays d’origine, a une nouvelle interface de recherche.

El sitio de la Red europea de informaciones sobre los países de originen, a un novel interface de búsqueda.


Amnesty International

Amnesty International is a global movement of more than 7 million supporters, members and activists in more than 150 countries and territories who campaign to end grave abuses of human rights. Its vision is for every person to enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards. Amnesty International is independent of any government, political ideology, economic interest or religion and is funded mainly by its membership and public donations.

Amnesty International has a database covering vast areas of human rights related topics from women and children’s rights, LGBTI rights, migrant and asylum law, torture and unlawful killings and business and technology rights. Their database contains regularly updated academic research, reports and country specific information on all regions of the world. 

Asylum Research Centre (ARC)
Online contact form:
Contact persons: Liz Williams and Stephanie Huber

Asylum Research Centre (ARC) provides a country of origin information (COI) research service including country reports to support individual asylum claims for use in representations to refugee decision making bodies. Its case-specific research service is primarily fee-paying, but ARC may be able to undertake pro bono research for NGOs with limited funds who provide free services to refugees.

ARC also provides country specific and thematic COI research for UNHCR, publishes commentaries on UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Notes (CPINS), and on European Asylum Support Office’s (EASO) COI reports. ARC also undertakes research consultancy, project management and training to the asylum, immigration and human rights sector.

ARC further manages the international  COI Forum which provides a platform for COI researchers and practitioners to share publications and ideas on COI research and sources. ARC also provides a free bi-monthly COI Update, which contains notifications of new Home Office COI publications as well as recent publications and developments in the top countries of origin of asylum seekers in the UK.

COI Forum 

The COI Forum is moderated by  Asylum Research Centre (ARC) . It is part of the community platform.

The COI Forum is a free online tool for all COI researchers and users of COI working in refugee status determination to share publications and ideas on COI research and sources, to post any COI (research) related questions for other members to answer, as well as to develop shared resources. The COI Forum is open to all organisations and individuals, subject to approval by the COI Forum moderators, but is a confidential private discussion group only for the use of its members.

To find out more about the governance of the COI Forum and to register for free please follow the steps explained here .

CGRS (Center for Gender & Refugee Studies)
200 McAllister Street, San Francisco, CA 94102, USA
Tel: +1 41 55 65 48 77 
Fax: +1 41 55 81 88 24

The  Center for Gender & Refugee Studies (CGRS)  has resources for women seeking asylum on account of Domestic Violence (DV), including country conditions information on DV in Honduras and an expert declaration on DV in Honduras. If you would like to receive a copy of this information, please fill out a request for information on their website and they will respond shortly.

They provide all resources at no cost.

The CGRS has country conditions information and advisory materials for a number of other countries and topics, especially information regarding gender-based violence, persecution of LGBT individuals, and children.

They cover countries worldwide, although their resources regarding domestic violence and violence against women in Mexico and Central America are the most extensive.

The centre has information packets for over 100 countries and with 4-6 weeks’ notice is happy to produce new packets for specific cases concerning gender, LGBT, or children’s issues. In addition to those packets, they have general expert declarations regarding DV in Mexico, violence against indigenous women in Mexico, DV in Guatemala, DV in Honduras, DV in El Salvador, violence against women generally in El Salvador, one on FGC generally, and one on incest.

If you have a case for which you are in need of assistance, please feel free to submit a request at the above URL and they will share with you anything that may be of help.

Human Rights Watch 

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is a non-profit, non-governmental human rights organisation made up of more than 280 staff members around the globe. Its staff consists of human rights professionals including country experts, lawyers, journalists, and academics of diverse backgrounds and nationalities.

Established in 1978, Human Rights Watch is known for its accurate fact-finding, impartial reporting, effective use of media, and targeted advocacy, often in partnership with local human rights groups. Each year, Human Rights Watch publishes more than 100 reports and briefings on human rights conditions in some 90 countries, generating extensive coverage in local and international media.

Its publications include country reports, as well as an annual World Reports. Annual World Report summarises human rights conditions in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide in each year. To view the 2020 HRW report click here . The report’s web site provides access to individual country chapters, as well as an introduction on “Tyranny’s False Comfort: Why Rights aren’t Wrong in Tough Times,” three thematic essays, and three photo collections. Previous editions of the World Report are available here .

Human Rights Watch Reports on country conditions are persuasive. To sign up for the Newsletter, please click  here  to receive regular updates. HRW has offices in:  New York , Amsterdam , Beirut , Berlin , Brussels , Chicago , Geneva , Johannesburg , London , Los Angeles , Nairobi , Paris , San Francisco , Sydney , Tokyo , Toronto , Washington D.C. and Zürich .

International Crisis Group

The International Crisis Group is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation committed to preventing and resolving deadly conflict. They provide regular and reliable updates and reports on countries in conflict situations. It is also available in French and in Arabic and some reports are available in other languages.


RefWorld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. The information has been carefully selected and compiled from UNHCR’s global network of field offices, governments, international, regional and non-governmental organisations, academic institutions and judicial bodies.

US Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for (US Department of State)

To access the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices please click here

These annual reports cover internationally recognised human rights, from civil and political rights, to workers rights and individual rights. They provide factual and objective information on the actions of foreign governments in an effort to demonstrate the commitment and respect the United States has to advance human rights and fundamental freedoms. The reports draw attention to the growing challenges facing individuals and organisations as governments around the world fall short of their obligation to uphold universal human rights. 


Electronic Immigration Network

The Electronic Immigration Network (EIN) provides information on UK immigration and refugee law. The site comprises two main areas: 

  1. the Public Site (free). This site gives access to country of origin experts, news and information on the latest legislation and most recent case law, event listings and a general resources list which links to related sites.

  2. the Members’ Site (at a charge). This contains case law, legislation, updates on policy and practice, information on events, job information and bulletin boards that enable users to consult with and contact fellow practitioners. A forum allows access to immigration and asylum-related decisions from the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal up to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

The directory of Country of Origin Experts is available here . It is accessible to all. However, we have no way of knowing if these listed experts are willing to do this work without charge. You should contact them directly and explain your situation where you are unable to pay

UK Border Agency’s Country of Origin Information Service

The Country of Origin Information Service (COI Service) provides up-to-date, sourced, independently reviewed information on asylum seekers’ countries of origin. Sources include UN reports, human rights reports, various media bodies and information from specialist country officers, amongst others. COI material produced by UKBA is reviewed by the independent Advisory Group on Country Information (IAGCI). If you have any comments or suggestions on any COI Service products, you can send them to: UKBApublicenquiries[at]

Do consult Asylum Research Consultancy ( ) for critiques of UK Border Agency’s COI report and beware, UK Border Agency’s report often are out-of-date as are many such sources.


Rights in Exile Guide to Writing COI Expert Witness Reports  

This guide reviews the legal elements of claiming asylum under the 1951 Geneva Convention. It explains how a country of origin information (COI) expert affidavit helps to support these elements, and provides guidelines for drafting such expert affidavit. It is important to bear in mind that each case will have different requirements, particularly concerning the expert opinion you provide, and we highly recommend discussing the case first with the lawyer representing the asylum seekers to ensure that your affidavit is sufficiently tailored to the particulars of the case. 

Expert Country Evidence in Asylum and Immigration Cases in the UK: Best Practice Guide 

The ‘Expert Country Evidence in Asylum and Immigration Cases in the United Kingdom: Best Practice Guide’ provides advice on how to write effective reports that meet the expert witness’ obligations. It outlines the process of writing the report and the expert’s role, explains how to meet the expectations and requirements of the legal process in order to best assist the Court or Tribunal, lists some common dos and don’ts, discusses the structure and format of an expert report, and touches on the topics of oral evidence and fees. While designed for COI experts in the UK, we believe all would benefit.


AfghanistanEquatorial GuineaMadagascarSaint Vincent and the Grenadines
AlgeriaEstoniaMalaysiaSan Marino
American Samoa EthiopiaMaldivesSao Tome and Principe
AndorraFaroe IslandsMaliSaudi Arabia
AnguillaFinlandMarshall IslandsSerbia
Antigua and BarbudaFranceMartiniqueSeychelles
ArgentinaFrench GuianaMauritaniaSierra Leone
ArmeniaFrench PolynesiaMauritiusSingapore
AustriaGeorgiaMoldovaSolomon Islands
BahrainGhanaMongoliaSouth Africa
BangladeshGibraltarMontenegroSouth Korea
BarbadosGreeceMontserratSouth Sudan
BelgiumGrenadaMozambiqueSri Lanka
Bosnia and HerzegovinaGuyanaNetherlands AntillesSyria
BotswanaHaitiNew CaledoniaTaiwan
BrazilHondurasNew ZealandTajikistan
British Virgin IslandsHungaryNicaraguaTanzania
Burkina FasoIndonesiaNiueTimor-Leste
BurundiIranNorfolk IslandTogo
CambodiaIraqNorth KoreaTokelau
CameroonIrelandNorth MacedoniaTonga
CanadaIsle of ManNorthern Mariana IslandsTrinidad and Tobago
Cape VerdeIsraelNorwayTunisia
Cayman IslandsItalyOmanTurkey
Central African RepublicIvory CoastPakistanTurkmenistan
ChadJamaicaPalauTurks and Caicos Islands
ChileJapanPalestinian TerritoryTuvalu
ChinaJerseyPanamaU.S. Virgin Islands
ColombiaJordanPapua New GuineaUganda
Congo (Brazzaville)KenyaPeruUnited Arab Emirates
Congo (Kinshasa)KiribatiPhilippinesUnited Kingdom
Cook IslandsKosovoPitcairnUnited States
Costa RicaKuwaitPolandUnited States Minor Outlying Islands
CubaLaosPuerto RicoUzbekistan
Czech RepublicLebanonReunionVenezuela
DjiboutiLiberiaRussiaWallis and Futuna
DominicaLibyaRwandaWestern Sahara
Dominican RepublicLiechtensteinSaint HelenaYemen
EcuadorLithuaniaSaint Kitts and NevisZambia
EgyptLuxembourgSaint LuciaZimbabwe
El SalvadorMacao S.A.R., ChinaSaint Pierre and Miquelon